Air Pollutants
carbon monoxide: product of
incomplete hydrocarbon combustion, binds preferentially and irreversibly
to hemoglobin 255 times more readily than oxygen.
hydrocarbon vapors: product
of hydrocarbon use.
lead: heavy metal, proven link
to brain damage.
ozone: irritant, product of
hydrocarbon combustion.
oxides of nitrogen: product
of hydrocarbon combustion, acid rain constituent.
sulfur dioxide: product of
charging EV's from coal fired power plants, acid rain [2].
sulfur trioxide: product of
charging EV's from coal fired power plants, acid rain.
formaldehyde: product of methanol
combustion.
acetaldehyde: product of ethanol
combustion.
waste heat: product of all
combustion.
Evaluating Energy Storage and Conversion
Schemes
Using the above definitions, any proposed
energy storage scheme can be assessed by answering these questions:
1) What is the specific energy of the scheme?
2) What is the specific power of the scheme,
during chargeup and discharge?
3) What is the energy storage density?
4) What is the specific cost? This
includes an accounting of:
a) the initial cost
b) the number of times
the system can be cycled
c) the cost of disposal.
5) What is the short, medium and long term
environmental impact?
Energy Definitions
specific energy: energy stored per
unit mass, also called energy density.
specific power: power available per
unit mass.
energy density: energy stored per
unit volume.
energy cost: cost per unit of energy.
Specific Energy Storage of Various
Storage Schemes
If we consider an idealized car traveling
at constant speed on level ground, we can use the energy numbers above
to calculate the range in terms of freeway miles. These figures are
most valuable for comparative purposes and can be scaled corresponding
to the extent to which the system they are deployed in is optimized.








































































Advantages of HEV's over pure EV's
The above energy arguments can be extended
to compare a hybrid EV (that utilizes a small propane engine/alternator
system) with a batteryonly system.
My proposed HEV, the ElectricStorm™ utilizes an 7.9 kilowatt AC power producing subsystem. This alternator subsytem weighs 330 pounds with 73 pounds of fuel. It consumes 5.84 pounds of fuel per hour at full power and can run for 12.51 hours without stopping. Its specific energy is 2378 kJ/kg.
The ElectricStorm™ would also carry a 550 pound, leadacid battery pack with a specific energy of 117 kJ/kg..
By weighted summation we obtain the effective
specific energy of the
965 kj/kg for the whole system. This
is better than half the specific energy of conventional vehicles with less
than one quarter of the emissions. For short trips the recharger
is off, so there are no emissions at all. The engine runs at a fixed
rpm and can be optimized for that speed in power output and emissions reduction.
When you run out of charge in a pure electric car you have a problem.
When you run out of charge in a hybrid, you start the onboard recharger
and "limp" home. The level ground "limping" speed for the ElectricStorm™
would be approximately 40 mph on level ground with no wind.
Footnotes:
1) Half of these 20 million vehicles are in Southern California.
2) According to Mike Kaiser 1990 Southern California power comes from:
2.4% oil (6% nationwide) 
13% outofstate coal 
17% natural gas 
20% nuclear 
44% is purchased (gas, wind, bio, geo) 
3% hydroelectric 