PI3K produces lipids that recruit pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane.

"PI protein" "is a synonym for" "PI3K"

"PI3K" "produces" "lipids"
"lipids" "recruit" "pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins"
"pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins" "are recruited" to the plasma membrane"

Akt is a kinase that the BCR activates in this manner.

"Akt" "is" "a kinase"
"the BCR" "activates" "Akt"

Akt phosphorylates several transcription factors as well as proteins that regulate apoptosis and protein synthesis.

"Akt" "phosphorylates" "several transcription factors"
"Akt" "phosphorylates" "proteins"
"proteins" "regulate" "apoptosis"
"proteins" "regulate" "protein synthesis"

Akt also regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase whose substrates include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT)c1 and [beta]-catenin transcriptional activators.

"Akt" "regulates" "glycogen synthase kinase-3"
"glycogen synthase kinase-3" "is" "a kinase"
"glycogen synthase kinase-3 substrates" "include" "the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT)c1"
"glycogen synthase kinase-3 substrates" "include" "[beta]-catenin transcriptional activators"

In addition to Akt, PI3K-derived lipids also regulate the activity and localization of other targets of BCR signaling.

"PI3K-derived lipids" "regulate" the activity of other BCR signaling targets"
"PI3K-derived lipids" "regulate" "the localization of other BCR signaling targets"

Thus, a key event in BCR signaling is the recruitment of PI3K to the plasma membrane where its substrates are located.

" PI3K recruitment" is important in" "BCR signaling"
" PI3K"" is recruited to" "the plasma membrane"
" PI3K substrates" "are located in" "the plasma membrane"

This is mediated by binding of the Src homology (SH) 2 domains in PI3K to phosphotyrosine-containing sequences on membrane-associated docking proteins.

"recruitment" "is mediated by" "binding"
"Src homology (SH) 2 domains""are in" "PI3K"
"Src homology (SH) 2 domains" bind to" "phosphotyrosine-containing sequences"
"phosphotyrosine-containing sequences" "are on" "membrane-associated docking proteins"

The docking proteins that the BCR uses to recruit PI3K include CD19, Cbl, Gab1, and perhaps Gab2.

"BCR" "recruits with" "docking proteins"
"Docking proteins""recruit" "PI3K"
"CD19" "is" "a docking proteis"
"Cbl" "is" "a docking protein"
"Gab1" "is" "a docking protein"
"Gab2" "may be" "a docking protein"

We have shown that Gab1 colocalizes PI3K with SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) and SHP2, two enzymes that regulate PI3K-dependent signaling.

" Gab1" "colocalizes" "PI3K"
" Gab1" "colocalizes with" "SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP)"
" Gab1" "colocalizes with" "SHP2"
"SHP2" "is" an enzyme"
"SHIP" "is" an enzyme"
"SHP2" "regulates" "PI3K-dependent signaling"
"SHIP" "regulates" "PI3K-dependent signaling"

In contrast to PI3K, little is known about the Rap1 GTPase.

" little" "is known about" "the Rap1 GTPase"

We showed that the BCR activates Rap1 via phospholipase C-dependent production of diacylglycerol.

"BCR" "activates" "Rap1"
"Rap1" "is activated via" "phospholipase C-dependent production of diacylglycerol"

Since Rap1 is thought to regulate cell adhesion and cell polarity, it may be involved in B-cell migration.

"Rap1" "is thought to regulate" "cell adhesion"
"Rap1" "is thought to regulate" "cell polarity"
"Rap1" "may be involved in" "B-cell migration"